In childrens urology, the most common problems for boys are with the penis or testicles.  More detailed information (and pictures) may be obtained from the BAUS website. These can usually be resolved fairly simply.

For girls, the most common problem is urinary problems.

Penile Problems (boys)

Problems with a foreskin that doesn’t adequately retract may be treated conservatively by waiting but in more severe cases circumcision or similar operations such as preputioplasty where the foreskin is mobilised without complete removal.

Undescended testicles (boys)

These are present in 4% of boys at birth but many (approximately ¾) go to a normal position in the scrotum in the first few months of life, leaving only 1% of boys to undergo treatment.  The testicles are usually relocated into the scrotum using a day surgery and this has a very high success rate.  Fluid on the testicle can also usually be treated by day surgery where this doesn’t get better on its own.

Twisted testicle is usually an emergency and if a child has sudden onset pain in the testicles he should be seen as urgently as possible usually within an hour or so and would be best advised to attend the accident and emergency department of their local hospital.

Urinary Problems (boys and girls)

Boys may also need to see a urologist to sort out night time leakage (enuresis) or general urinary symptoms such as urgent need to pass water or leakage.  Boys are not frequently troubled by urinary infections and these imply a cause which needs to be diagnosed.

Girls may need to see a urologist to sort out night time leakage (enuresis) or general urinary symptoms such as urgent need to pass water or leakage. These are common and rarely need any surgery but can often be managed with advice about diet, lifestyle, and in some cases medication.

Girls are more frequently troubled by urinary infections than boys and severe or recurring infections may need further tests to make sure that there is no underlying condition. In younger children (under 5) these patients are often seen by a paediatrician first.

See also:

Support information from the British Association of Urological Surgeons.